It is a surface/student (not really sure what the "S" stands for) edition meant to go up against ChromeBook.
It can only load applications from the Windows Store (not installed locally from desktop), though have seen an indication that it actually can after paying an extra fee.
Interestingly, the Forbes article indicates it is "built from Windows Pro, rather than from Windows Home".
I wouldn't expect much issue with Rhodes on 10 S, but we'll never know until tried. There could be build issues for Windows Store, for example.
To clarify, I am talking about running Rhodes apps on Windows 10 S - not developing on 10 S. I have an application that will require running on Windows 10 and Chromebook, in addition to iOS and Android. (Chromebook though via Android app, as selected ChromeBooks now run Android apps from the Play Store, and a large list of Chromebooks will be getting Android/Play Store access eventually.)
(I realize it is "too soon to tell" but thought I'd drop a placeholder here.)